Universal charger for small rechargeable Batteries (NiCd, NiMH, Alkaline, NiZn, LiPo, LiIon)
Supported small batteries:A)- Depending on the type:
1- Classic rechargeable (accumulators) – NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium) endure ~50 cycles charge-discharge, and NiMH (Nickel Metal-Hydride) ~100cyc, (ENELUPE- up to 200cyc.). Cons: Too low voltage - 1.2V, need only full discharge/charge cycles for long life, Cd is harmful for the health; Pros: reliable old technology, high load current.
2a- Silver oxide (mostly button cells) are also non rechargeable, can take some recharge, but about 3 times less than alkaline, up to ~20 cyc.
2b- A slight modification are Rechargeable alkaline, better charging, but not too much - up to 60-80 cyc. If discharged only to ~1.4V and recharged again, they can last much longer (unlike NiCd).
A lot of incorrect info for charging the Alkaline batteries is spread. From "Never try to charge", to wrongful advices for charging with very high uncontrolled current, which can cause damage, leakage, explosion or fire.
3- Nickel-Zinc rechargeable (NiZn) - 1.65V, up to 100-150 cyc. Cons: Degrade rapidly if discharged under 1.3V; 2 batteries usually strangely discharge very differently, so one of them always reaches quite under 1.3V, gets much worsen, and the life span is strongly reduced.
4- Lithium-polymer accus (LiPo) - 3.6V (3.3-3.7V), ~600 cyc; Reliable and long-lasting, but more easily damageable mechanically; Relatively light - mostly used in cell-phones.
5- Lithium-Ion accus (LiIon)- 4.2V, 700-1200 cyc - the most reliable and durable, but bad for the environment.
- Button (4 to 25 mm dia, 1.5 to 6 mm height);
- AAA (mini) and AA (middle) - the most populars.
There are many others, less common, therefore they are not supported.
These have nothing to do with the voltage or type - an AA battery can be from 1.2V to 4.2V and can permanently damage the device, if a wrong one is placed! A button one also can be from 1.2 to 3.6V
Some button cells can be partially rechargeable (the most popular 1.5V) - the alkaline (LR) are better rechargeable, silver oxide (SR) have better initial capacity; Lithium (CR) cannot be recharged (very popular, 3V); NiMH (rarely available) and LiIon (LR, ML, VL... - some of them seem not very reliable yet) are regular recheargable.
It is more informative the capacity to be given in Wh, instead of Ah, especially for the LiIon, because of their higher voltage. A comparison for good AA: NiCd- 1.2Wh, NiMH- 1.8Ah, NiZn- 2Ah, Alkaline- 2.5Ah, LiIon- 3Ah.
There is a strong tendency in degrading the quality last 5-10 years, while lap-top and especially cell-phone batteries are developing well.
Only optimized, specially developed low current patterns are used in SMARGER, to ensure the best quality, without any risk of fire, overheating or overcharging. The algorithm reduces the probability of leakage, but this can not be guaranteed. The process is strictly managed by a microcontroller.
The charger will be fully paid back through charging the first 100-200 batteries and after that will be total saving for the buyer.