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Smart small Battery Charger [SMARGER]

Universal charger for small rechargeable Batteries (NiCd, NiMH, Alkaline, NiZn, LiPo, LiIon)
and many non rechargeable Alkaline and Silver-oxide - AA, AAA and button cells

A very useful device for every household and office.
It can save a lot of money, and the Earth from a huge pollution -
the global world battery market is over $100 billions per year; most of them non rechargeable are thrown out after 1 use!

Under development, expected in 2018.

Supported small batteries:
    A)- Depending on the type:
  1- Classic rechargeable (accumulators) – NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium) endure ~50 cycles charge-discharge, and NiMH (Nickel Metal-Hydride) ~100cyc, (ENELUPE- up to 200cyc.). Cons: Too low voltage - 1.2V, need only full discharge/charge cycles for long life, Cd is harmful for the health; Pros: reliable old technology, high load current.
  2- Alkaline - the most popular type, 1.5V, sold as non rechargeable. However most brands can be recharged to some extend, up to 30-40 cycles - if discharged with low current, to voltage not under 1.3V, and still better if special charging algorithm is used.
  2a- Silver oxide (mostly button cells) are also non rechargeable, can take some recharge, but about 3 times less than alkaline, up to ~20 cyc.
  2b- A slight modification are Rechargeable alkaline, better charging, but not too much - up to 60-80 cyc. If discharged only to ~1.4V and recharged again, they can last much longer (unlike NiCd).
  A lot of incorrect info for charging the Alkaline batteries is spread. From "Never try to charge", to wrongful advices for charging with very high uncontrolled current, which can cause damage, leakage, explosion or fire.
  3- Nickel-Zinc rechargeable (NiZn) - 1.65V, up to 100-150 cyc. Cons: Degrade rapidly if discharged under 1.3V; 2 batteries usually strangely discharge very differently, so one of them always reaches quite under 1.3V, gets much worsen, and the life span is strongly reduced.
  4- Lithium-polymer accus (LiPo) - 3.6V (3.3-3.7V), ~600 cyc; Reliable and long-lasting, but more easily damageable mechanically; Relatively light - mostly used in cell-phones.
  5- Lithium-Ion accus (LiIon)- 4.2V, 700-1200 cyc - the most reliable and durable, but bad for the environment.
    B)- Depending on the dimensions:
- Button (4 to 25 mm dia, 1.5 to 6 mm height);
- AAA (mini) and AA (middle) - the most populars.
    There are many others, less common, therefore they are not supported.
    These have nothing to do with the voltage or type - an AA battery can be from 1.2V to 4.2V and can permanently damage the device, if a wrong one is placed! A button one also can be from 1.2 to 3.6V
    Some button cells can be partially rechargeable (the most popular 1.5V) - the alkaline (LR) are better rechargeable, silver oxide (SR) have better initial capacity; Lithium (CR) cannot be recharged (very popular, 3V); NiMH (rarely available) and LiIon (LR, ML, VL... - some of them seem not very reliable yet) are regular recheargable.

    The capacity (stored charge, in form of chemical compounds) depends on the discharging current (a good AA can have up to 3Ah at 100mA, but only 0.5Ah if discharged with 2A); it is better if they are used in small periods of time, than at once; the capacity is less at lower and at very high temperatures. Producers usually give much higher chargeability and capacity than the real ones; more often nothing at all - only meaningless Energizer, Heavy duty etc.
  It is more informative the capacity to be given in Wh, instead of Ah, especially for the LiIon, because of their higher voltage. A comparison for good AA: NiCd- 1.2Wh, NiMH- 1.8Ah, NiZn- 2Ah, Alkaline- 2.5Ah, LiIon- 3Ah.
    There is a strong tendency in degrading the quality last 5-10 years, while lap-top and especially cell-phone batteries are developing well.

    Only optimized, specially developed low current patterns are used in SMARGER, to ensure the best quality, without any risk of fire, overheating or overcharging. The algorithm reduces the probability of leakage, but this can not be guaranteed. The process is strictly managed by a microcontroller.
    All parameters are displayed on an alphanumeric monitor. The customer can arrange what is dislayed and has the option to define the charging settings - any voltage between 1V and 4.5V, current up to 200mA per 1 battery.
    Another option is to only test the voltage, loading ability, internal resistance and approximate capacity.
    The instrument works from any USB port or USB-type power supply (included). The maximum consumption is less than 400 mA, which allows using of any standard USB port. The relatively low charging current is optimized for long life and reliability, instead of quickly... damaging the battery!

    Most of the chargers on the market are for one type of batteries only, usually NiCd/NiMH, with prices up to $100-$200 each. Usually too high current is used, in order to claim very quick recharge, but thus the life of the batteries is much reduced or they are even damaged.
    The charger will be fully paid back through charging the first 100-200 batteries and after that will be total saving for the buyer.